When athlete's foot fungus or infested skin particles spread to one's environment (such as to clothes, shoes, bathroom, etc.) whether through scratching, falling, or rubbing off, not only can they infect other people, they can also reinfect (or further infect) the host they came from. For example, infected feet infest one's socks and shoes which further expose the feet to the fungus and its spores when worn again.
Topical treatment is also usually recommended for children. One reason for this is that most oral medications aren’t suitable for children. Another reason is that children have thinner nails that grow more quickly, so it’s assumed that treatment with nail polish or creams is more likely to work in children than in adults. White superficial onychomycosis is also often treated with a nail polish or cream.
Prescription oral antifungals such as terbinafine (Lamisil) or fluconazole (Diflucan) are traditionally used to treat toenail fungus. These treatments are often effective, but they may cause serious side effects ranging from upset stomach and dizziness to severe skin problems and jaundice. This may be why many people try home remedies instead. Here are 10 of these popular at-home treatments.
In some cases of suspected nail fungus there is actually no fungal infection, but only nail deformity. A 2003 source gives a figure of 50% whereas a more recent source claims that fungus is present in 65 to 95 percent of cases. Avoiding use of oral antifungal therapy (e.g. terbinafine) in persons without a confirmed infection is a particular concern because of the possible side effects of that treatment. However, according to a 2015 study, the cost in the United States of testing with the periodic acid–Schiff stain (PAS) was about $148. Even if the cheaper KOH test is used first and the PAS test is used only if the KOH test is negative, there is a good chance that the PAS will be done (because of either a true or a false negative with the KOH test). But the terbinafine treatment only cost $10 (plus an additional $43 for liver function tests). In conclusion the authors say that terbinafine has a relatively benign adverse effect profile, with liver damage very rare, so it makes more sense cost-wise for the dermatologist to prescribe the treatment without doing the PAS test. (Another option would be to prescribe the treatment only if the potassium hydroxide test is positive, but it gives a false negative in about 20% of cases of fungal infection.) On the other hand, as of 2015 the price of topical (non-oral) treatment with efinaconazole was $2307 per nail, so testing is recommended before prescribing it.
Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail. Symptoms may include white or yellow nail discoloration, thickening of the nail, and separation of the nail from the nail bed. Toenails or fingernails may be affected, but it is more common for toenails to be affected. Complications may include cellulitis of the lower leg.
Caprylic acid, one of the medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, has the ability to penetrate the durable cell wall of candida and other fungi. Without its protective coating the cells of the fungus dissolve, effectively destroying the infection. Apply a thin layer of coconut oil to infected areas and let it soak in for at least fifteen minutes. Coconut oil is great for skin health, so there is no limit to how often you can use this treatment. Just make sure you aren’t allergic to coconuts before applying this product to sensitive tissue.
Other causative pathogens include Candida and nondermatophytic molds, in particular members of the mold genus Scytalidium (name recently changed to Neoscytalidium), Scopulariopsis, and Aspergillus. Candida species mainly cause fingernail onychomycosis in people whose hands are often submerged in water. Scytalidium mainly affects people in the tropics, though it persists if they later move to areas of temperate climate.
Onychomycosis – commonly known as toenail fungus – is characterized by inflammation, pain, and swelling of the toe, as well as yellowing, thickening, and crumbling of the nail itself. Toenail fungus can be the result of abnormal pH of the skin, continuous exposure to moisture, wearing synthetic socks, compromised immune system, sweat build-up in shoes, poor foot hygiene, or weak circulation such as that caused by diabetes.
Rotate your shoes – Change your shoes often. Even though you may have that favorite pair that you like to wear all the time, it is better for your feet to switch up your shoes from time to time. Even wearing the same pair of shoes two days in a row can elevate your risk for toenail fungus. Place shoes that you are not wearing in an area where they will get plenty of air.
Nine out of 10 women are wearing shoes that are too small. The consequences aren't pretty – calluses, blisters, bunions, corns, and other problems. The constant rubbing can irritate the joints in the foot and lead to arthritis. Research suggests many kids are also wearing the wrong shoe size, which puts them at risk for foot deformities as they grow.
Toenail fungus often begins as an infection in the skin called tinea pedis (also known as athlete’s foot). The fungus often starts under the nail fold at the end of the nail. Over time, it grows underneath the nail and causes changes to its appearance, such as a yellow or brownish discoloration. It can also cause thickening and deformity of the toenail.
Because you’re removing the majority of sugars and grains from your diet, in addition to fiber, I also recommend increasing the amount of protein-rich foods you’re eating. Make sure to buy grass-fed meat; organic, cage-free eggs or poultry; raw, unpasteurized dairy; and wild-caught fish — this is key for obtaining enough protein while also reducing toxins in your diet.
Nail infections occur more often in men than in women, and the infections are found in adults more often than in children. If you have family members who often get these types of fungal infections, you’re more likely to get them as well. Older adults are at the highest risk for getting fungal infections of the nails because they have poorer circulation and their nails grow more slowly and thicken as they age.
If you observe any abnormal nail changes it is important to visit your doctor for prompt assessment. In addition to being cosmetically unappealing, OM can also lead to more serious complications, including the possible loss of your nail, bacterial infections, or cellulitis. Speak with your healthcare provider to determine what the best treatment plan is for you.
Flip-flops offer very little protection. The risk of getting splinters or other foot injuries is higher when the feet are so exposed. People with diabetes should not wear flip-flops, because simple cuts and scrapes can lead to serious complications. In addition, many flip-flops provide no arch support. Like ballet flats, they can aggravate plantar fasciitis and cause problems with the knees, hips, or back.
Fungal nail infections and the resultant nail destruction can promote other sources of infection like cellulitis (a bacterial skin infection) and other forms of tinea, and aggravate foot problems resulting from other illnesses such as diabetes. Diagnosis is usually confirmed by looking at nail clippings through a microscope or other tests before starting treatment.