Topical treatment (polish or cream) isn’t likely to get rid of a fungal nail infection. Treatment with tablets is considerably more effective and takes less time. But some people can’t take tablets because of the very rare, yet serious risks. How you feel about the pros and cons of the different treatment options is a personal matter. You can also discuss the options with your doctor.
Many individuals with athlete's foot have no symptoms at all and do not even know they have an infection. Many may think they simply have dry skin on the soles of their feet. Common symptoms of athlete's foot typically include various degrees of itching, stinging, and burning. The skin may frequently peel, and in particularly severe cases, there may be some cracking, fissuring, pain, and itching in the toe webs. Occasionally, athlete's foot can blister.
Tea tree oil, also called melaleuca, is an essential oil with antifungal and antiseptic abilities. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, some small-scale clinical studies showed that tea tree oil might be effective against toenail fungus. To use, paint the tea tree oil directly onto the affected nail twice daily with a cotton swab. Find therapeutic-grade tea tree oil on Amazon.
Since some people are simply more prone to fungal infections, they are also prone to repeated infection. Preventive measures include keeping your feet clean and dry, avoiding prolonged moist environments, using socks in airport security lines, removing shoes, and allowing the feet skin to "breathe," avoiding walking barefoot, especially in public areas like swimming pools and gyms, avoiding contact with known infected people, and avoiding soaking and contaminated tool usage at nail salons. Weekly applications of a topical antifungal foot cream or sprinkling of antifungal foot powder (Zeasorb Foot Powder) into shoes may also be helpful.
Oral medications include terbinafine (76% effective), itraconazole (60% effective) and fluconazole (48% effective).[2] They share characteristics that enhance their effectiveness: prompt penetration of the nail and nail bed,[23] and persistence in the nail for months after discontinuation of therapy.[24] Ketoconazole by mouth is not recommended due to side effects.[25] Oral terbinafine is better tolerated than itraconazole.[26] For superficial white onychomycosis, systemic rather than topical antifungal therapy is advised.[27]
Onychomycosis – commonly known as toenail fungus – is characterized by inflammation, pain, and swelling of the toe, as well as yellowing, thickening, and crumbling of the nail itself.  Toenail fungus can be the result of abnormal pH of the skin, continuous exposure to moisture, wearing synthetic socks, compromised immune system, sweat build-up in shoes, poor foot hygiene, or weak circulation such as that caused by diabetes.
You can also try itraconazole (Sporanox), which is usually prescribed with a dose of 200 mg a day for 12 weeks. Side effects can include nausea, rash, or liver enzyme abnormalities. It should not be used if you have liver issues. Sporanox also has interactions with over 170 different drugs such as Vicodin and Prograf. Check with your doctor to ensure any medication you are taking does not interfere with it.[7]
Chronic nail trauma, such as repeatedly starting and stopping, kicking, and other athletic endeavors, can cause damage to the nails that can look a lot like fungal nails. This sort of repetitive trauma can also occur with certain types of employment or wearing tight-fitting shoes. Some traumas may cause permanent changes that may mimic the appearance of fungal nails.
Starts at the base of the nail and raises the nail up: This is called "proximal subungual onychomycosis." This is the least common type of fungal nail. It is similar to the distal type, but it starts at the cuticle (base of the nail) and slowly spreads toward the nail tip. This type almost always occurs in people with a damaged immune system. It is rare to see debris under the tip of the nail with this condition, unlike distal subungual onychomycosis. The most common cause is T. rubrum and non-dermatophyte molds.
Starts at the ends of the nails and raises the nail up: This is called "distal subungual onychomycosis." It is the most common type of fungal infection of the nails in both adults and children. It is more common in the toes than the fingers, and the great toe is usually the first one to be affected. Risk factors include older age, swimming, athlete's foot, psoriasis, diabetes, family members with the infection, or a suppressed immune system. It usually starts as a discolored area at a corner of the big toe and slowly spreads toward the cuticle. Eventually, the toenails will become thickened and flaky. Sometimes, you can also see signs of athlete's foot in between the toes or skin peeling on the sole of the foot. It is often accompanied by onycholysis. The most common cause is T. rubrum.

Oils such as olive oil and sunflower oil contain ozone gas. A 2011 study published in the Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, showed that small doses of this kind of ozone, applied over a short period, can eliminate fungus. A different study, conducted at the National Center for Scientific Research, Cuba, found that sunflower oil was more effective than the prescription drug Xolegel (ketoconazole).
Snakeroot extract is an antifungal made from plants in the sunflower family. A 2008 study showed that the remedy is as effective against toenail fungus as the prescription antifungal medicine ciclopirox. For the study, snakeroot extract was applied to the affected area every third day for the first month, twice a week for the second month, and once a week for the third month. You can find snakeroot extract online.
Use tea tree oil. Tea tree oil is a natural anti-fungal. One study showed that tea tree oil may be effective for nail fungus. 18% of patients who used tea tree oil twice daily for 24 weeks were cleared of the infection.[13] To treat nail fungus with tea tree oil, use a 100% solution because lower concentrations have not been proven to be effective for this particular infection.[14]
The medical name for fungal athlete's foot is tinea pedis. There are a variety of fungi that cause athlete's foot, and these can be contracted in many locations, including gyms, locker rooms, swimming pools, communal showers, nail salons, and from contaminated socks and clothing. The fungi can also be spread directly from person to person by contact. Most people acquire fungus on the feet from walking barefoot in areas where someone else with athlete's foot has recently walked. Some people are simply more prone to this condition while others seem relatively resistant to it. Another colorful name for this condition is "jungle rot," often used by members of the armed services serving in tropical climates.

Red or black nails due to a hematoma, or blood under the nail, usually occur from trauma (like whacking yourself on the thumb with a hammer). The discolored area will grow out with the nail and be trimmed off as you trim your nails. If you have a black spot under your nail that was not caused by trauma, you may want to see a dermatologist or a podiatrist if it involves a toenail to make sure it is not melanoma (a type of skin cancer associated with pigmented cells). A simple biopsy can rule out malignancy (cancer).
There are many topical antifungal drugs useful in the treatment of athlete's foot including: miconazole nitrate, clotrimazole, tolnaftate (a synthetic thiocarbamate), terbinafine hydrochloride,[17] butenafine hydrochloride and undecylenic acid. The fungal infection may be treated with topical antifungal agents, which can take the form of a spray, powder, cream, or gel. Topical application of an antifungal cream such as terbinafine once daily for one week or butenafine once daily for two weeks is effective in most cases of athlete's foot and is more effective than application of miconazole or clotrimazole.[23] Plantar-type athlete's foot is more resistant to topical treatments due to the presence of thickened hyperkeratotic skin on the sole of the foot.[13] Keratolytic and humectant medications such as urea, salicyclic acid (Whitfield's ointment), and lactic acid are useful adjunct medications and improve penetration of antifungal agents into the thickened skin.[13] Topical glucocorticoids are sometimes prescribed to alleviate inflammation and itching associated with the infection.[13]
Garlic has antifungal properties useful to foot fungus treatment, thanks to its compounds such as allicin and ajoene. These natural compounds work to treat the toenail fungus. Mix crushed up garlic or garlic oil with white vinegar. Apply the mixture on and around the infected area and then cover it with a bandage. Leave the bandage on for a few hours. Repeat daily until the toenail fungus clears. Plus, learn about the other signs of disease your feet can reveal.
Multiple fungi species can infect the nail. Fungus grows well in warm, moist environments such as showers. Fungus infection is one of the few foot problems that affect more men than women, perhaps because more men walk barefoot in locker rooms. Age is a factor, too. Half the sufferers are people older than 70. Other risk factors include having certain medical conditions such as diabetes, vascular insufficiency and malnutrition.

Scratching infected areas may also spread the fungus to the fingers and under the fingernails. If not washed away soon enough, it can infect the fingers and fingernails, growing in the skin and in the nails (not just underneath). After scratching, it can be spread to wherever the person touches, including other parts of the body and to one's environment. Scratching also causes infected skin scales to fall off into one's environment, leading to further possible spread.


Candida albicans is a common yeast that grows inside the human body. In healthy people, other bacteria and immune cells keep this yeast under control so it doesn’t cause any problems, but in some people candida can become overgrown and cause infections in various areas. One of the ways candida shows up is through the skin where it can cause noticeable reactions or infections. Other ways are on the mouth, vagina and anus.
For some people, a fungal infection of the nails can be difficult to cure and the first round of medication might not work. The nail infection can’t be considered cured until a new nail that’s free from infection has grown in. Although this indicates that the nail is no longer infected, it’s possible for the fungal infection to return. In severe cases, there may be permanent damage to your nail, and it may have to be removed.

If common remedies do not offer relief within three to four months of consistent use, or if the discomfort worsens, contact your doctor. Extreme infections may require the temporary surgical removal of the nail. A replacement nail will usually grow. As the new nail regrows, it is good practice to treat it with an antifungal cream to prevent reinfection.


Green nails can be caused by Pseudomonas bacteria, which grow under a nail that has partially separated from the nail bed. This infection may cause a foul odor of the nails. The treatment is to trim the nail short every four weeks, don't clean it, polish if you want to hide the color, and wait two to three months. It is also advised to avoid soaking the nail in any sort of water (even if inside gloves) and to thoroughly dry the nail after bathing. If the problem continues, there are prescription treatments that your doctor may try.
Occlusive shoe materials, such as vinyl, which cause the feet to remain moist, provide an excellent area for the fungus to proliferate. Likewise, absorbent socks like cotton that wick water away from your feet may help. Some individuals who sweat excessively benefit from the application of antiperspirants like 20% aluminum chloride (Drysol). Powders can help keep your feet dry. Although counterintuitive, if your feet can be soaked in a solution of aluminum acetate (Burow's solution or Domeboro solution) and then air dried with a fan, this can be very helpful if performed three or four times within 30 minutes. A home remedy of dilute white vinegar soaks, using one part vinegar and roughly four parts water, once or twice a day (as 10-minute foot soaks) may aid in treatment followed by evaporation can be helpful.
To get rid of toe fungus, apply 100% tea tree oil to the affected area with a cotton swab twice a day. You can also try applying Vick's VapoRub to your toe every night before you go to sleep, which may make the fungus go away. Another home remedy you can try is snakeroot leaf extract, which may clear up the fungus if you apply it to the affected area every 3 days. If home remedies aren't helping, talk to your doctor about getting an oral or topical antifungal medication.
Dermatophytes — fungus that grows on the skin, hair and nails but don’t penetrate tissues of the body. Athlete’s foot or Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte and can actually infect the toenails. Infection can also begin by touching objects that have dermatophytes on them, such as nail clippers, nail files, socks, shoes, shower floors, etc. Dermatophytes are the cause of most fungal toenail infections.
Efinaconazole (Jublia) is a medication that was approved in 2014. It is a topical (applied to the skin) antifungal used for the local treatment of toenail fungus due to two most common fungal species affecting nails (Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). Once-daily application is required for 48 weeks. The most common side effects of Jublia are ingrown toenails and application site dermatitis and pain.

Snakeroot extract is an antifungal made from plants in the sunflower family. A 2008 study showed that the remedy is as effective against toenail fungus as the prescription antifungal medicine ciclopirox. For the study, snakeroot extract was applied to the affected area every third day for the first month, twice a week for the second month, and once a week for the third month. You can find snakeroot extract online.
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