Diagnosis is made based on clinical exam and can be confirmed by viewing scrapings of the nail under a microscope, or growing the fungus in a culture medium. This is not an easy condition to cure, so rather than trying home treatment with over-the-counter medications, it's best to see your doctor. As with many conditions, nail fungus infections are easier to treat if you catch them early.


Topical antifungal agents can be used but are often ineffective. Oral terbinafine is considered to be the first-line treatment for confirmed onychomycosis; the treatment course is generally 6 weeks for fingernails and 12 weeks for toenails.9 Azoles can also be used. Surgical debridement or removal of the affected nail is also a consideration for cases that are resistant to antifungals, and laser treatments for onychomycosis appear to be a promising area for future study.10

Topical agents such as amorolfine (Loceryl 5% nail lacquer; applied once or twice a week) and ciclopirox (Penlac 8% nail lacquer; applied daily) are usually prescribed for mild forms of the disease, but the treatment periods are long and their efficacy is somewhat limited due to poor nail plate penetration. These medications kill fungi by interfering with their cell membranes, which leads to their death.
Fungal nail infections don’t usually lead to serious long-term problems when properly treated, but they may be more serious in certain individuals. This can include people with diabetes or who have a weakened immune system and have trouble fighting off an infection. Even if there is no pain associated with the infection, it is important that you promptly visit your doctor for assessment if you see any abnormal nail changes.
Unfortunately, athlete’s foot is highly contagious and the fungus can easily spread to the toes and toenails, causing infections. There are more than three million cases of toenail fungus in the US every year. Not all toenail infections are from athlete’s foot or even from a fungus; some are caused by yeast or mold. These are much harder to cure than fungal infections.

Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail.[2] Symptoms may include white or yellow nail discoloration, thickening of the nail, and separation of the nail from the nail bed.[2][3] Toenails or fingernails may be affected, but it is more common for toenails to be affected.[3] Complications may include cellulitis of the lower leg.[3]
Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte involved in onychomycosis. Other dermatophytes that may be involved are T. interdigitale, Epidermophyton floccosum, T. violaceum, Microsporum gypseum, T. tonsurans, and T. soudanense. A common outdated name that may still be reported by medical laboratories is Trichophyton mentagrophytes for T. interdigitale. The name T. mentagrophytes is now restricted to the agent of favus skin infection of the mouse; though this fungus may be transmitted from mice and their danders to humans, it generally infects skin and not nails.
Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail.[2] Symptoms may include white or yellow nail discoloration, thickening of the nail, and separation of the nail from the nail bed.[2][3] Toenails or fingernails may be affected, but it is more common for toenails to be affected.[3] Complications may include cellulitis of the lower leg.[3]
Onychomycosis (toenail fungus) is an infection of the nail and sometimes surrounding tissue. It is extremely common with 20 percent of the general population and 75 percent of people over 60 years old affected. Frequently the problem causes cosmetic concerns, but many patients also experience pain. Sometimes toenail fungus can allow more serious infections to develop.
Some methods of prevention include avoiding walking barefoot in public showers, keeping the toenails short, wearing big enough shoes, and changing socks daily.[4][5] When infected, the feet should be kept dry and clean and wearing sandals may help.[3] Treatment can be either with antifungal medication applied to the skin such as clotrimazole or for persistent infections antifungal medication that are taken by mouth such as terbinafine.[2][4] The use of the cream is typically recommended for four weeks.[4]
Treating the feet is not always enough. Once socks or shoes are infested with fungi, wearing them again can reinfect (or further infect) the feet. Socks can be effectively cleaned in the wash by adding bleach or by washing in water 60° C (140° F).[32] Washing with bleach may help with shoes, but the only way to be absolutely certain that one cannot contract the disease again from a particular pair of shoes is to dispose of those shoes.
If you love the look of ballet flats, over-the-counter inserts (shown here) may help prevent mild foot pain. Heel pads can provide extra cushioning for achy heels. And custom orthotics can ease a whole range of foot pains and problems. Podiatrists prescribe these inserts to provide arch support and reduce pressure on sensitive areas. Prescription orthotics can be pricey, but are sometimes covered by insurance.
Yeast onychomycosis: This type is caused by a yeast called Candida and not by the Trichophyton fungus named above. It is more common in fingernails and is a common cause of fungal fingernails. Patients may have associated paronychia (infection of the cuticle). Candida can cause yellow, brown, white, or thickened nails. Some people who have this infection also have yeast in their mouth or have a chronic paronychia (see above) that is also infected with yeast.
Cultured dairy or fermented foods (ideally organic and raw) — these are beneficial for replacing good bacteria in the gut since they provide probiotics. Probiotics help control yeast and also have numerous immune-enhancing effects. For other sources of probiotics, in addition to yogurt or kefir try cultured foods like kimchi, kombucha or sauerkraut.
Following this protocol for several months might be able to help solve the problem for good, and then you can slowly reintroduce sources of sugar like fruit, or whole grains, while monitoring your progress. However, keep in mind that some candida or yeast sufferers have lived with their condition for years, so combating the issue might take more than just a few weeks or months.
The newer drugs are unlikely to cause any liver problems in patients without known liver disease. Blood tests are not needed for once-weekly treatment with fluconazole (Diflucan); however, people taking longer courses often have their liver function tested before starting the medicine and then retested during the course of treatment. It is important to notify the doctor of all side effects while on the medication. You should tell your doctor of all current medications to prevent potential serious drug interactions.
As both an antiseptic and fungicidal remedy, tea tree oil is a great remedy for onychomycosis.  First clean areas on and around the infection with rubbing alcohol then apply undiluted 100% pure tea tree oil (such as this Plant Therapy Tea Tree Oil) directly to the affected nails and let it soak in.  After about ten minutes, gently scrub the nail with a soft bristle toothbrush.  When applying tea tree oil directly to skin, consider mixing the oil one-to-one with an all-natural carrier, like olive or almond oil.  Repeat daily until the new healthy nail grows out completely, then continue treatment for two to three more weeks to prevent regrowth.
Other risk factors include perspiring heavily, being in a humid or moist environment, psoriasis, wearing socks and shoes that hinder ventilation and do not absorb perspiration, going barefoot in damp public places such as swimming pools, gyms and shower rooms, having athlete's foot (tinea pedis), minor skin or nail injury, damaged nail, or other infection, and having diabetes, circulation problems, which may also lead to lower peripheral temperatures on hands and feet, or a weakened immune system.[11]
​The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) offers information on this site as an educational service. The content of FootCareMD, including text, images and graphics, is for informational purposes only. The content is not intended to substitute for professional medical advice, diagnoses or treatments. If you need medical advice, use the "Find an Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeon" tool at the top of this page or contact your primary doctor. 
Topical agents such as amorolfine (Loceryl 5% nail lacquer; applied once or twice a week) and ciclopirox (Penlac 8% nail lacquer; applied daily) are usually prescribed for mild forms of the disease, but the treatment periods are long and their efficacy is somewhat limited due to poor nail plate penetration. These medications kill fungi by interfering with their cell membranes, which leads to their death.

Diabetes related foot problems can affect your health with two problems: diabetic neuropathy, where diabetes affects the nerves, and peripheral vascular disease, where diabetes affects the flow of blood. Common foot problems for people with diabetes include athlete's foot, fungal infection of nails, calluses, corns, blisters, bunions, dry skin, foot ulcers, hammertoes, ingrown toenails, and plantar warts.
When athlete's foot fungus or infested skin particles spread to one's environment (such as to clothes, shoes, bathroom, etc.) whether through scratching, falling, or rubbing off, not only can they infect other people, they can also reinfect (or further infect) the host they came from. For example, infected feet infest one's socks and shoes which further expose the feet to the fungus and its spores when worn again.
You can also try itraconazole (Sporanox), which is usually prescribed with a dose of 200 mg a day for 12 weeks. Side effects can include nausea, rash, or liver enzyme abnormalities. It should not be used if you have liver issues. Sporanox also has interactions with over 170 different drugs such as Vicodin and Prograf. Check with your doctor to ensure any medication you are taking does not interfere with it.[7]

Fungal nails (onychomycosis) may be caused by many species of fungi, but the most common is Trichophyton rubrum. Distal subungal onychomycosis starts as a discolored area at the nail's corner and slowly spread toward the cuticle. In proximal subungal onychomycosis, the infection starts at the cuticle and spreads toward the nail tip. Yeast onychomycosis is caused by Candida and may be the most common cause of fungal fingernail.
According to the UK's National Health Service, "Athlete’s foot is very contagious and can be spread through direct and indirect contact."[24] The disease may spread to others directly when they touch the infection. People can contract the disease indirectly by coming into contact with contaminated items (clothes, towels, etc.) or surfaces (such as bathroom, shower, or locker room floors). The fungi that cause athlete's foot can easily spread to one's environment. Fungi rub off of fingers and bare feet, but also travel on the dead skin cells that continually fall off the body. Athlete's foot fungi and infested skin particles and flakes may spread to socks, shoes, clothes, to other people, pets (via petting), bed sheets, bathtubs, showers, sinks, counters, towels, rugs, floors, and carpets.
The most reliable way to diagnose athlete’s foot is to correctly identify its cause. Fungal athlete's foot is relatively straightforward to diagnose and treat. Visualization of the fungus in skin scrapings removed from the affected areas of the feet is a painless and cost-effective method for diagnosis. Rarely, it is necessary to identify fungi in portions of skin removed during a biopsy. If no fungus is found, other causes of athlete's foot must be investigated.
Español: eliminar los hongos en los pies, Deutsch: Fußpilz loswerden, Português: Acabar com Micoses nos Pés, Italiano: Liberarsi dei Funghi ai Piedi, Français: se débarrasser d’une mycose des pieds, Nederlands: Voetschimmel verhelpen, 中文: 摆脱足廯的困扰, Русский: вылечить грибок стопы, Čeština: Jak se zbavit plísně nohou, Bahasa Indonesia: Menghilangkan Jamur Kaki, العربية: التخلّص من فطريات القدمين, Tiếng Việt: Chữa Nấm Bàn chân, 한국어: 무좀 제거하는 법
Sporty, fitted sandals and other "toning shoes" are designed for a more intense workout while walking. The American Council on Exercise says there's no evidence to support that claim, but they may have other benefits. The thick sole keeps your foot off the ground and away from debris. And Brenner points out, "they do have really good arch support." Several have a seal of approval from the American Podiatric Medical Association.
An active substance in olive leaf extract, oleuropein, is thought to have antifungal, antimicrobial, and immune-boosting abilities. You can apply olive leaf salve directly to nail fungus or ingest in capsule form. According to this review, taking one to three olive leaf capsules with meals twice daily is more effective than olive leaf salve in treating toenail fungus. Drink plenty of water throughout this treatment. Find olive leaf extract capsules or oil on Amazon.
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